Whether or not you’re revising on your GCSE chemistry examination or writing up an experiment, you’ll have to have a very good understanding of some key chemistry phrases. However for those who don’t know your hydrocarbons out of your valence electrons, don’t fear – this helpful GCSE chemistry glossary is right here to assist.
Overlaying a spread of key matters, this web page outlines some primary GCSE chemistry phrases and their definitions. Though the glossary is way from exhaustive, it ought to provide help to brush up on the important thing phrases you’ll want throughout your research.
And don’t neglect to try our chemistry training sources part for extra info and recommendation.
Vary of GCSE matters
From atomic construction to chemical change, the GCSE chemistry syllabus covers a variety of matters. These embody the next:
- Atomic construction and the periodic desk
- Bonding, construction, and the properties of matter
- Quantitative chemistry
- Chemical adjustments
- Power adjustments
- The speed and extent of chemical change
- Natural chemistry
- Chemical evaluation
- Chemistry of the environment
- Utilizing sources
The phrases listed on this web page belong to a number of of the above chemistry matters. Proceed studying to search out out extra.
Acid rain happens when pollution from industrial emissions and exhaust fumes react with water vapour within the air. These pollution – which embody carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulphur dioxide – type acidic compounds once they achieve protons from water.
Classed as derivatives of hydrocarbons, alcohols are natural compounds which have no less than one hydroxyl group connected to a saturated carbon. For instance, for those who add a hydroxyl group to a methyl radical (from methane), you possibly can type methanol, the only type of alcohol.
Typically thought to be the constructing blocks of life, amino acids are chains of molecules that mix to type proteins. These proteins can fold and type totally different three-dimensional buildings which have varied properties and capabilities. Some act as enzymes whereas others present structural assist.
Lots of the organs in multicellular organisms have proteins in them each for useful and structural functions. All amino acids have two useful teams – the amine group and the carboxyl group – in addition to a novel facet chain.
The boiling level of any substance is the temperature at which its vapour stress is the same as the encompassing stress when it transitions into vapour. Strain is an important consider figuring out the boiling level of a substance.
Boyle’s regulation is a perfect gasoline regulation that states the stress of a gasoline is inversely proportional to the quantity when held at a continuing temperature. The speculation is called after Robert Boyle, who developed the regulation in 1662.
An natural acid that comprises a carboxyl useful group. It has a double-bonded oxygen and a hydroxyl group.
A catalyst is a substance that will increase the speed of a chemical response or reduces the temperature wanted to start out a chemical response – however the catalyst itself isn’t consumed. A catalyst may very well be a metallic, an inorganic salt, or natural compounds like enzymes.
Though a catalyst doesn’t take part within the chemical response per se, it will increase the floor space and modifies the activation power of the reactants.
Chromatography is a method that separates out the person parts of a mix or resolution based mostly on their totally different weights. There are numerous varieties of chromatography, however one of many easiest is paper chromatography, which lets you separate colors in a mix. Chromatography has a variety of purposes each in analytical chemistry and trade.
The concept that the speed of a chemical response largely depends upon the chance that the molecules or atoms of the reactants will stumble upon one another. That is the explanation why warmth can improve the speed of chemical reactions (particles transfer sooner when heated and subsequently collide extra steadily).
A kind of chemical response that happens when oxygen combines with a component or compound to type an oxide. If the compound is natural, the response produces water and carbon dioxide.
Combustion is an exothermic response as a result of it generates warmth. For combustion to happen there must be oxygen, gasoline (e.g. wooden or gasoline), and a set off akin to a spark or flame.
Full combustion is when a gasoline, or the reactant, is totally consumed by oxygen. Such a response produces carbon dioxide, water and warmth, whereas incomplete combustion kinds soot, carbon monoxide and different residues.
A bodily or chemical change that entails the formation of lattice or crystalline buildings. Crystallisation might happen in a supersaturated resolution (an answer that comprises greater than the utmost quantity of solute that may be dissolved by the solvent).
Crystallisation may also happen when there’s a response between two substances that produce crystal compounds.
A kind of chemical response wherein the constituent components or molecular teams of a substance cut up into less complicated kinds. One widespread instance is the decomposition of sugar into carbon and water when a catalyst like sulphuric acid is added.
A diatomic molecule is a compound wherein every molecule has two atoms of the identical ingredient. Some components, like oxygen and nitrogen, exist as secure substances in nature as diatomic molecules.
The method of purifying and extracting substances from a mix. Easy distillation entails heating and separating liquids with totally different boiling factors. Because the temperature of the water rises, the water vapour cools, condenses and drips right into a beaker. The method is commonly used to make pure water from seawater.
A course of wherein an electrical present is handed by an aqueous resolution of electrolyte, splitting the water molecules into elemental hydrogen and oxygen gases. Electrolysis is used to extract hydrogen and oxygen gases on an industrial scale. It’s additionally helpful in fuel-cell electrical vehicles.
The sum of the inner power in a thermodynamic system and the product of its stress and quantity. Enthalpy is an efficient stand-in for the power of a chemical system, representing the bonds, lattice, solvation, and different energies.
A method used to take away undesirable particles or strong matter from an answer utilizing a filter. Filtration will be carried out with a easy medium, like a filtration paper. The fluid passes by the paper and the residue particles are left behind.
Filtration may also be performed in a number of phases, which might contain nano-sized filtration pores and reverse osmosis.
The liquid or gaseous natural stays of dwelling organisms akin to crops and animals that lived thousands and thousands of years in the past. Fossil fuels are basically several types of hydrocarbons that may be processed and used as fuels like gasoline and diesel.
A type of distillation designed to separate mixtures of liquids. The variations within the boiling factors of the combination’s parts make it doable to condense the liquids at varied factors of the fractionating column.
Fractional distillation is generally used within the petroleum trade to separate the totally different parts of crude oil.
The greenhouse impact occurs when gases like carbon dioxide lure warmth from the solar within the earth’s environment. These heat-absorbing gases heat the earth and are consequently one of many largest drivers of local weather change. The phenomenon will get its title as a result of the gases lure warmth in an analogous strategy to glass panels in a greenhouse.
A kind of gasoline that absorbs infrared radiation and thereby contributes to the greenhouse impact (see above). Greenhouse gases can both come from pure sources akin to volcanic eruptions or they are often produced by human-made industrial processes.
Examples of greenhouse gases embody carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons.
One of many hardest artificial supplies, consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms which are organized in a nano-sized lattice hexagonal construction. Graphene is 200 instances stronger than metal however 5 instances lighter than aluminium.
Haber course of
The commercial strategy of mass-producing ammonia utilizing an iron catalyst, excessive temperatures, and excessive stress. Within the Haber course of, nitrogen and hydrogen are put beneath 200 to 400 atmospheres at temperatures starting from 400° to 650°C.
The halogens are the six gaseous components in Group 17 of the periodic desk of components. Their title got here from the Greek roots hal- and -gen, which suggests “salt” and “to provide”, respectively. All of those components produce salt with sodium.
A kind of substance that consists of several types of molecules or atoms. Just about all substances that exist of their pure state are impure. From minerals to air, substances happen as mixtures with different substances or as compounds.
The Joule is the SI unit of power, which is equal to the quantity of labor exerted when a power of 1 Newton is utilized to a mass by a distance of 1 metre. It has the derived unit of kg⋅m2⋅s−2. The Joule is called after the English physicist James Prescott Joule in recognition of his scientific contributions.
The Kelvin is the SI unit used for measuring temperature. Named after the famend physicist Lord Kelvin, the dimensions defines 0 Okay as absolute zero. That is the theoretical temperature at which all power within the system is eliminated. Absolute zero is equal to -273.15° C.
In chemistry, lattice refers back to the orderly association of a collection of factors in a crystalline construction. It’s used to explain the sample of ions, atoms, or particles of the crystalline strong.
A liquid is a just about incompressible fluid that flows, making it capable of take the form of its container. It’s one of many three states of matter and an intermediate between a strong and a gasoline. A liquid has particles that slide towards one another.
The molar mass of any substance is the gram equal of its constituent particles, atoms or molecules. It may be calculated by including the atomic mass of its composition. One mole of a substance is the same as 6.02 x 1023, or Avogadro’s quantity.
A kind of chemical response that happens between an acid and a base. The opposing pH ranges of the reactants are neutralised, forming salt and water. There are several types of neutralisation reactions, which will be categorised based on the power of the reactants concerned.
Oxidation doesn’t essentially contain oxygen; it’s merely the method wherein electrons are faraway from a lowering substance by an oxidising agent. Oxidation is one half of a redox response. It will probably both be spontaneous or nonspontaneous.
Photosynthesis is a biochemical course of that’s carried out by autotrophic organisms like crops and algae. Primarily, they convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar with the assistance of daylight. Photosynthesis happens within the chloroplast utilizing chlorophyll (the inexperienced pigment present in crops).
Qualitative evaluation is a sort of preliminary evaluation that appears at visible traits of a chemical response, such because the formation of steam or a color change.
Qualitative evaluation is comparatively straightforward to carry out as a result of it doesn’t normally require costly tools. Plus, in contrast to quantitative evaluation, it doesn’t contain calculations or exact measurements.
A type of evaluation that entails measurable parameters which have bodily equivalents like temperature. Scientists use quantitative evaluation to measure knowledge units and make exact calculations.
Reverse osmosis, or RO, is a water purification course of wherein water is put beneath stress after which handed by a semipermeable membrane. Reverse osmosis can take away varied microorganisms and mineral impurities from water, together with salt.
The steadiness between the financial want for progress and the necessity for environmental safety. Chemistry performs an essential function in serving to scientists to develop extra sustainable merchandise and thereby preserve the Earth’s finite sources.
Titration is a volumetric analytical method that’s generally used to decide the molar focus of an analyte (the answer being recognized).
Throughout a titration experiment, a identified focus of a reactant is ready and steadily added to the analyte till a impartial threshold is reached. The ultimate quantity is in contrast with the preliminary quantity to calculate the focus of the analyte.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons with double or triple bonds with the adjoining carbon atoms. They’re referred to as unsaturated hydrocarbons as a result of not all the valence electrons of carbon atoms are bonded with hydrogen atoms.
These are the electrons situated within the outermost shell (valence shell) of an atom. Valence electrons are most definitely to be concerned in chemical reactions and chemical bonding. They comply with the octet rule, which suggests the atom is most secure when there are eight electrons within the valence shell.
Wastewater remedy is a multi-stage course of designed to take away doubtlessly dangerous impurities and pollution from water so it may be reused. Wastewater ought to at all times be handled earlier than it’s launched into the surroundings.
Firstly, strong supplies are faraway from the water. That is adopted by flocculation or precipitation. The water then passes by filtration techniques earlier than lastly being handled with chlorine to kill any microorganisms.
Xenon is a chemical ingredient that belongs to Group 18 within the periodic desk, in any other case referred to as the noble gases. It has the image Xe and the atomic quantity 54. Xenon is commonly utilized in arc lamps that produce UV rays.
A excessive power ray with wavelengths that vary from 0.01 nm as much as 10 nm. X-rays can simply go by objects and are generally utilized in medication to look at doable bone fractures. It’s additionally utilized in chemistry for analytical crystallography.
The yield of a chemical response refers back to the quantity of matter produced given a certain quantity of reactants.
A rule in natural chemistry that’s used to foretell the formation of alkenes in elimination reactions. Based on Zaitsev’s rule, elimination reactions will produce alkenes which are extremely substituted.
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